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Properties of an enzyme-based low level iodine disinfectant

Properties of an enzyme-based low level iodine disinfectant

This study documents an enzyme-based iodine (EBI) disinfectant that continuously generates free molecular iodine (I2) in a controlled fashion and evaluates the EBI for use in disinfecting flexible fiberoptic endoscopes (FFEs).

What was shown:

  • A unique feature of the EBI-solution is its ability to generate I2 at a defined rate over a day.
  • The generation of I2 can be controlled and tailored for specific application use
  • Five different flexible fiber scopes were processed (disinfected). No organism was recovered from internal or external sampling sites from 15 trials.
  • Acute dermal, acute ocular, acute oral and acute inhalation toxicity testing on animals resulted in a toxicity score of zero in all instances.
  • Bacteria, mycobacteria and viruses (including HIV-1 and Polio) were inactivated at a rate equivalent to 2% Glutaraldehyde.
  • The EBI-solution passed the AOAC sporicidal assay at 24 hours.
  • Gottardi's [contributing author] potentiometric method was used to dynamically monitor I2.

Food for thought:
It is possible to control the regeneration of free molecular iodine (a natural biocide). Using free molecular iodine as the biocidal agent, an alternative disinfectant to Glutaraldehyde can be created that is as effective and has a more desirable safety profile.

Citation:

Y Duan 1, K Dinehart, J Hickey, R Panicucci, J Kessler, W Gottardi
Properties of an enzyme-based low level iodine disinfectant
J Hosp Infect. 1999 Nov;43(3):219-29. DOI: 10.1053/jhin.1999.0249. PMID: 10582189.

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The Dawn of Molecular Iodine

The Origan Story of Molecular Iodine

DID YOU KNOW ... iodine along with other essential elements trace their origin stories back 10 billion years when a dying star went supernova. That massive explosion set off a nucleosynthesis – a process by which new atomic nuclei are formed by the collapse of a star. As the supernova dissipated, its dust formed the earth about 5 billion years ago. Iodine on the earth is a component of nuclear ash!  How cool is that!

Food for Thought:

  • When looking at iodine from an evolutionary perspective, it may be the most ancient antioxidant available.
  • On earth, iodine is the 61st rarest essential element although it is found in almost every environment.
  • On earth’s terra firma, iodine is scarce due to it having been washed to the sea over the past hundreds of millions of years. Although found in fresh and saltwater, sea water has approximately 200 times more iodine.

Citation:

Venturi S. 2011. Evolutionary significance of iodine. Current Chemical Biology, 5(3), 155–162. DOI:10.2174/2212796811105030155


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Control of the amount of free molecular iodine in iodine germicides

Control of the amount of free molecular iodine in iodine germicides

This study was performed to establish the main aspects of iodine chemistry, bactericidal efficacy and toxicity of enzyme-based iodine germicides using horseradish peroxidase.

What was shown:

  • Real time measurement of the conversion of iodide into free molecular iodine.
  • Use of Gottardi's [contributing author] potentiometric method to dynamically monitor free molecular iodine.
  • The enzyme-based composition catalyzes the regeneration of iodine. Molecular iodine was regenerated in response to a bioburden which enabled persistent biocidal activity.
  • The naturally occurring biocidal iodine species (molecular iodine) was shown to be available and active for sustained periods of time.
  • The biocidal efficacy of such compositions was proportional to the concentration of free molecular iodine.
  • An effective germicide containing a high level of molecular iodine need not be irritating or toxic.

Food for thought:
The ability to regenerate a natural biocide that is neither irritating nor toxic is available today for integration into products where disinfection is a key aspect.

Citation:

Hickey J, Panicucci R, Duan Y, Dinehart K, Murphy J, Kessler J, Gottardi W. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1997 Dec;49(12):1195-9.
DOI: 10.1111/j.2042-7158.1997.tb06069. PMID: 9466342.

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